University of Southern Denmark
World of VISL -> Constraint Grammar  Visual Interactive Syntax Learning  
Syddansk Universitet
 
 

Constraint

Grammar

General [to top]

Constraint Grammar (CG) parsers are at the core of most of VISL's live applications. The Constraint Grammar concept was launched by Fred Karlsson in the early 90'ies (Karlsson et.al.1995), and CG parsers have since been written for a large variety of languages, routinely achieving F-scores for PoS (word class) of over 99%. A number of syntactic CG systems have reported F-scores of around 95%. VISL's own Constraint Grammar systems are inspired by Eckhard Bick's PALAVRAS parser for Portuguese (Bick 2000), and use, as a novelty, subclause function, generalized dependency markers and semantic prototype tags. For most languages, a lexicon based morphological analyzer provides input to the first CG level, while the output of the last CG-level can be converted into syntactic tree structures by specially designed Phrase Structure Grammars (PSG's), using syntactic functions, not words, as terminals. Other, hybrid combinations are, however, feasible. Thus, the French system uses PoS information from a probabilistic tagger.

Constraint Grammar (CG) is a methodological paradigm for Natural Language Parsing (NLP). Linguist-written, context dependent rules are compiled into a grammar that assigns grammatical tags ("readings") to words or other tokens in running text. Typical tags address lemmatisation (lexeme or base form), inflexion, derivation, syntactic function, dependency, valency, case roles, semantic type etc. Each rule either adds, removes, selects or replaces a tag or a set of grammatical tags in a given sentence context. Context conditions can be linked to any tag or tag set of any word anywhere in the sentence, either locally (defined distances) or globally (undefined disances). Context conditions in the same rule may be linked, i.e. conditioned upon each other, negated or blocked by interfering words or tags. Typical CG's consist of thousands of rules, that are applied set-wise in progressive steps, covering ever more advanced levels of analysis. Within each level, safe rules are used before heuristic rules, and no rule is allowed to remove the last reading of a given kind, thus providing for a hight degree of robustness.

Publications [to top]

[early CG-publications] [VISL CG-publications] [other CG-publications]

Early general Constraint Grammar publications

  • Karlsson, Fred (1990). "Constraint grammar as a framework for parsing running text". In: Karlgren, Hans (ed.), Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, volume 3, pp. 168-173, Helsinki, Finland.
  • Karlsson et al. (1995), "Constraint Grammar - A Language-Independent System for Parsing Unrestricted Text". Mouton de Gruyter
  • Chanod, Jean-Pierre and Pasi Tapanainen (1995). "Tagging French – comparing a statistical and a constraint-based method." In: Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 149–156, Dublin, Ireland, March. ACL.
  • Tapanainen, Pasi (1996). "The Constraint Grammar Parser CG-2". No 27, Publications of the Department of General Linguistics, University of Helsinki.

Some publications concerning VISL Constraint Grammar systems:

Other publications concerning Constraint Grammar

  • Antonsen, Lene & Huhmarniemi, Saara & Trosterud, Trond (2009). Constraint Grammar in Dialogue systems. Constraint Grammar Workshop at NODALIDA 2009, Odense. NEALT Proceedings Series, Vol 8, pp.13-21. Tartu: Tartu University Library. (ISSN 1736-6305)
  • Antonsen, Lene & Huhmarniemi, Saara & Trosterud, Trond (2009). Interactive pedagogical programs based on Constraint Grammar. Constraint Grammar Workshop at NODALIDA 2009, Odense. NEALT Proceedings Series, Vol 8, pp.10-17. Tartu: Tartu University Library. (ISSN 1736-6305)
  • Lindström, Liina & Müürisep, Kaili (2009). Parsing Corpus of Estonian Dialects. Constraint Grammar Workshop at NODALIDA 2009, Odense. NEALT Proceedings Series, Vol 8, pp. 22-29. Tartu: Tartu University Library. (ISSN 1736-6305)
  • Trosterud, Trond (2009). A Constraint Grammar for Faroese. Constraint Grammar Workshop at NODALIDA 2009, Odense. NEALT Proceedings Series, Vol 8, pp.1-7. Tartu: Tartu University Library. (ISSN 1736-6305)
  • Dhonnchadha, E. Uí (2006). "A Part-of-speech tagger for Irish using Finite-State Morphology and Constraint Grammar Disambiguation". In: Proceedings of LREC'06. Genova, Italy.
  • Atserias, J. et al. (2006). "FreeLing 1.3: Syntactic and semantic services in an open-source NLP library". In: Proceedings of LREC'06. Genoa, Italy (2006)
  • Hurskainen, Arvi (2006), Constraint Grammar in Unconventional Use: Handling complex Swahili idioms and proverbs. In: Suominen, Mickael et.al. (ed.) A Man of Measure: Festschrift in Honour of Fred Karlsson on his 60th Birthday. Special Supplement to SKY Jounal of Linguistics, Vol. 19 (ISSN 1796-279X), pp. 397-406. Turku: The Linguistic Association of Finland
  • Müürisep, Kaili and Uibo, Heli. "Shallow Parsing of Spoken Estonian Using Constraint Grammar". In: P.J.Henriksen & P.R.Skadhauge, Proceedings of NODALIDA-2005 special session on treebanking. Copenhagen Studies in Language #33/2006.
  • Müürisep, Kaili et al. (2003). A New Language for Constraint Grammar: Estonian. In: International Conference Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing. Proceedings. Borovets, Bulgaria, 10-12 September 2003, pp. 304-310.
  • Hagen, Kristin & Lane, Pia. & Trosterud, Trond (2001). "En grammatikkontrol for bokmål". In: Kjell Ivar Vannebo & Helge Sandøy (eds.): Språkknyt 3-2001.
  • Hagen, K., Johannessen, J. B., Nøklestad, A.(2000). "A Constraint-Based Tagger for Norwegian". In: Lindberg, C.-E. og Lund, S.N. (red.): 17th Scandinavian Conference of Linguistic, Odense. Odense Working Papers in Language and Communication, No. 19, vol I.
  • Arppe, Antti (2000). "Developing a grammar checker for Swedish". In: Nordgård, T. (ed.) Nodalida'99 Proceedings. Department of Linguistics, University of Trondheim. pp. 13-27.
  • Birn, Jussi (2000). "Detecting grammar errors with Lingsoft's Swedish grammar checker". In: Nordgård, T. (ed.) Nodalida'99 Proceedings. Department of Linguistics, University of Trondheim. pp. 28-40.
  • Lager, Torbjörn (1999). "The µ-TBL System: Logic Programming Tools for Transformation-Based Learning". In: Proceedings of CoNLL'99, Bergen.
  • Lindberg, Nikolaj & Martin Eineborg (1998). "Learning Constraint Grammar-style disambiguation rules using Inductive Logic Programming". In: Proceedings of COLING 1998.
  • Lindberg, Nikolaj & Martin Eineborg (1998). "Learning Constraint Grammar-style disambiguation rules using Progol". In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1998, Volume 1446/1998, 116-124, DOI: 10.1007/BFb0027315
  • Padró, L.(1996). "POS Tagging Using Relaxation Labelling". In: Proceedings of COLING '96. Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Hurskainen, Arvi (1996). "Disambiguation of morphological analysis in Bantu languages". In: Proceedings of the 16th conference on Computational Linguistics. Copenhagen:ACL. Vol.1, pp.568-573
  • Marques, Lluis & Horacio Rodriguez (1995). "Towards Learning a Constraint Grammar from Annotated Corpora Using Decision Trees". ESPRIT BRA-. 7315 Acquilex II, Working Paper
  • Chanod, Jean-Pierre & Tapanainen, Pasi, "Tagging French - comparing a statistical and a constraint- based method", adapted from: Statistical and Constraint- based Taggers for French, Technical report MLTT-016, Rank Xerox Research Centre, Grenoble, 1994
  • Voutilainen, Atro, Juha Heikkilä, and Arto Anttila (1992). "Constraint Grammar of English - A Performance-Oriented Introduction". No. 21, Publications of the Department of General Linguistics, University of Helsinki.
 


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